Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. It is characterized by persistent patterns of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity that are more frequent and severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development.
ADHD is defined by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) as a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development. It is important to note that these symptoms must be present and disruptive to the individual's life for at least six months and in at least two settings (such as at home and at school).
The concept of ADHD has been around for over a century, with the term "Attention Deficit Disorder" (ADD) first appearing in the DSM-III in 1980. The term was later changed to "Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder" in the DSM-IV to reflect the importance of the hyperactive and impulsive behaviors associated with the disorder.
ADHD is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. It is usually first diagnosed in childhood and often lasts into adulthood. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as of 2016, approximately 6.1 million children in the United States have been diagnosed with ADHD. The disorder affects about 5% of children and about 2.5% of adults worldwide.
There are many misconceptions about ADHD, including the belief that it is a result of bad parenting or that it is an excuse for poor behavior. In reality, ADHD is a legitimate brain-based medical disorder that affects people of all ages, races, and backgrounds. It is not caused by poor parenting, too much sugar, or lack of discipline. It is a complex disorder that is likely caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurological factors.
In conclusion, understanding ADHD is the first step towards managing it effectively. This involves recognizing the symptoms, understanding the causes, and debunking the myths surrounding the disorder. With this knowledge, we can begin to explore strategies for managing ADHD in the subsequent units.
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