- Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

- Wave-Particle Duality

- The Schrödinger Equation

- Quantum Operators and Measurement

- Quantum Mechanics of Systems

- The Dirac Equation

- Introduction to Quantum Electrodynamics (QED)

- Path Integrals and Quantum Mechanics

- Symmetries in Quantum Field Theory

- Quantum Chromodynamics

- The Higgs Mechanism

- Quantum Field Theory in Curved Space-Time

- Quantum Cosmology and Conclusion

Fundamental theory in physics describing the properties of nature on an atomic scale.

Quantum mechanics, a fundamental theory in physics, describes the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. It is the foundation of all quantum physics including quantum chemistry, quantum field theory, quantum technology, and quantum information science. The birth of quantum mechanics was a significant shift from classical physics and marked a new era in scientific understanding.

The birth of quantum mechanics can be traced back to the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During this time, scientists were grappling with phenomena that couldn't be explained by classical physics. Two key problems were the Ultraviolet Catastrophe and the Photoelectric Effect.

The Ultraviolet Catastrophe was a problem associated with the radiation emitted by a black body. Classical physics predicted that a black body would emit radiation with infinite energy, which was in stark contrast to experimental observations. This problem was resolved by Max Planck in 1900 when he proposed that energy was quantized, meaning it could only take on discrete values. This was the first hint of quantum theory.

The Photoelectric Effect was another phenomenon that couldn't be explained by classical physics. It refers to the emission of electrons from a material when light is shone on it. Albert Einstein resolved this problem in 1905 by proposing that light was made up of particles, or 'quanta', now known as photons. This was a revolutionary idea, as light was traditionally thought of as a wave.

Several key figures played crucial roles in the development of quantum theory. Max Planck, often referred to as the father of quantum theory, was the first to introduce the concept of quantization. Albert Einstein further developed this idea with his explanation of the Photoelectric Effect.

Niels Bohr, another key figure, introduced the concept of quantum jumps with his model of the atom in 1913. He proposed that electrons orbit the nucleus in discrete energy levels and can 'jump' between these levels, emitting or absorbing energy in the process.

Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, and Paul Dirac, among others, further developed quantum mechanics in the 1920s and 1930s. They introduced the mathematical formalism that underlies quantum mechanics and made significant contributions to our understanding of the quantum world.

The development of quantum mechanics marked a significant shift from classical physics. Classical physics, with its deterministic laws and continuous variables, was unable to explain the behavior of particles at the atomic and subatomic level. Quantum mechanics, with its probabilistic nature and discrete energy levels, provided a new framework for understanding these phenomena.

In conclusion, the historical background of quantum mechanics is a fascinating tale of scientific discovery and revolution. It is a story of how scientists grappled with unexplained phenomena and, in the process, developed a new theory that would forever change our understanding of the physical world.