- Fundamentals of Geometry

- Practical Aspects of Geometry

- Fundamentals of Trigonometry

- Practical Aspects of Trigonometry

Circle with radius one.

The unit circle is a fundamental concept in trigonometry. It is a circle with a radius of one that is centered at the origin of a coordinate plane. The unit circle is used to define the trigonometric functions of sine, cosine, and tangent, and it plays a crucial role in many areas of mathematics, including calculus and complex numbers.

The unit circle is a circle with a radius of one unit, centered at the origin (0,0) of a coordinate plane. The x-axis and y-axis intersect at the origin, dividing the circle into four quadrants. The unit circle is particularly important in trigonometry because it allows us to define the trigonometric functions for all possible angle measures, not just for acute angles.

The unit circle also provides a geometric interpretation of the sine and cosine functions. The x-coordinate of a point on the unit circle corresponds to the cosine of the angle formed by the positive x-axis and the line segment connecting the origin to the point. Similarly, the y-coordinate corresponds to the sine of the angle.

On the unit circle, the radian measure of an angle is the length of the arc on the unit circle subtended by the angle. Since the circumference of the unit circle is 2π, an angle that subtends an arc equal to half the circumference has a radian measure of π, and an angle that subtends the entire circumference has a radian measure of 2π.

The coordinates of a point on the unit circle can be found using the definitions of sine and cosine. If θ is the angle formed by the positive x-axis and the line segment connecting the origin to the point, then the x-coordinate of the point is cos(θ) and the y-coordinate is sin(θ).

The unit circle allows us to define the sine, cosine, and tangent functions for all real numbers. For a point on the unit circle corresponding to an angle θ, the sine of θ is the y-coordinate of the point, the cosine of θ is the x-coordinate, and the tangent of θ is the y-coordinate divided by the x-coordinate (sin(θ)/cos(θ)).

The graphs of the sine, cosine, and tangent functions show the values of these functions for all angles. The x-axis represents the angle (in radians), and the y-axis represents the value of the function. The graph of the sine function is a wave that oscillates between -1 and 1, with a period of 2π. The cosine function has the same shape and period as the sine function, but it is shifted π/2 units to the left. The tangent function has vertical asymptotes at odd multiples of π/2 and a period of π.

Understanding the unit circle and its relationship to the trigonometric functions is crucial for studying more advanced topics in mathematics. It provides a foundation for exploring periodic phenomena, complex numbers, and calculus.