- Fundamentals of Geometry

- Practical Aspects of Geometry

- Fundamentals of Trigonometry

- Practical Aspects of Trigonometry

Number that can be put in the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers and i is called the imaginary unit.

In this unit, we will delve into the fascinating world of complex numbers and polar coordinates. These concepts are fundamental to many areas of mathematics and physics, and they provide a powerful tool for solving problems that would be difficult or impossible to solve using only real numbers and Cartesian coordinates.

Complex numbers are numbers that consist of a real part and an imaginary part. The imaginary unit is denoted by 'i', and it has the property that i² = -1. A complex number is then written in the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers.

Arithmetic with complex numbers is straightforward. To add or subtract two complex numbers, you simply add or subtract the real parts and the imaginary parts separately. To multiply two complex numbers, you use the distributive law and the fact that i² = -1. Division of complex numbers involves multiplying the numerator and denominator by the conjugate of the denominator and simplifying.

The trigonometric form of a complex number is a way of representing a complex number in terms of its magnitude (or modulus) and its direction (or argument). The modulus of a complex number a + bi is given by √(a² + b²), and the argument is the angle θ that the line from the origin to the point (a, b) makes with the positive x-axis.

Multiplication and division are particularly easy in trigonometric form. To multiply two complex numbers, you multiply their moduli and add their arguments. To divide two complex numbers, you divide their moduli and subtract their arguments.

Polar coordinates provide an alternative to Cartesian coordinates for representing points in the plane. A point is represented by a distance r from the origin and an angle θ from the positive x-axis.

To convert from rectangular coordinates (x, y) to polar coordinates (r, θ), you can use the formulas r = √(x² + y²) and θ = atan2(y, x). To convert from polar coordinates to rectangular coordinates, you can use the formulas x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ.

Graphing in polar coordinates can provide a different perspective on functions and can make some functions easier to graph. To graph a function in polar coordinates, you plot the point (r(θ), θ) for a range of values of θ.

Conic sections (circles, ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas) can be represented by equations in polar coordinates. These equations can often be simpler than their Cartesian counterparts, especially for conics centered at the origin.

By the end of this unit, you should have a solid understanding of complex numbers and polar coordinates, and you should be able to use these concepts to solve a variety of mathematical problems.